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href="/website/article/11/index.html">文献频道</a> >> <a href="/website/article/1112/index.html">会议报告</a> >> 正文 </div> <div class="enterprise-info-mainbody"> <span id="id" style="display: none;">B1FE88F35AE1486188DB62AE6DCB3EC0</span> <div class="title">我国岩土工程面的Ş势和发展的道?/div> <div class="sub-title">2014-07-30</div> <!-- D start --> <div class="introduction"> 攚w开攄别是q?0q_农业、工业特别是能源、钢铁、徏{材料制造业基础发展的成,以及军_C农业、工业和服务业高速发展的C信息技术和产业发展成就奠定了我国经发展的基础。我国社会主义徏讑ֈ期特别是大跃q时代高速度高指标发展出现的错误再也不可能发生了? </div> <!-- D start --> <!-- 正文 --> <div class="mainbody"> <div style="display:none"> 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? 我国岩土工程面的Ş势和 发展的道? 中国U学院院?宋振? 2013-7-11 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? 汇报提纲 一. 我国岩土工程发展面的Ş? ?岩土工程C化发展到道\ ? —走工程决策、实施操作、监控管? 化的发展道\ ?关于岩土工程学科体系发展问题 ?关于岩爆Q冲d压)预测和控制理论的探讨 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? 一Q我国岩土工E徏讑֏展面临的形势 Q一Q国家经发展Ş? 1.C会M生国民l济发展的目标及l? 危机的可能? ①发展目标:满人民不断增长的物质文明和 _文明生活的需要; ②出现经危机(生和经发展大q度的下 滑)的可能性? 中国特色C会M道\的本质排除了老牌资本? 义国家和没有摆脱D民地半D民地媄响的发展中国 家发展过E中出现破坏性大q度l济衰退Q经危 机)的可能性? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? 但是Q受l济全球化的影响和发达资本主义国? l济控制Q我国经发展受资本M市场l济危机 影响出现短时期经发展减速是不可避免的? ③我国当前经发展速度减缓效益下降的原因: a 受资本主义社会经危机和市场需求下滑的 影响Q我国经GDP三分之一来源资本M市场Q? b 转变_放l济发展模式的迫切需要? 2.我国l济高速稳步发展的必然? a 克服与发达资本主义国家生zLq的差距? q背C会MC会发展目标的富差距,保持C会 E_的强劲内需Q与动力Q; 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? b 十八大确定的坚持攚w开放,坚持毛泽东? 惻I邓小q理论和U学发展观的思想指导Q实施创 新驱动和人才强国战略Q实现通过转变生方式? 调整产业l构适应生安全型,资源节约型,环境 友好型可持箋C会发展强大的内需驱动和竞争全? 化的发展道\? 3.攚w开攄别是q?0q_农业、工业特别是 能源、钢铁、徏{材料制造业基础发展的成,? 及决定现代农业、工业和服务业高速发展的C? 息技术和产业发展成就奠定了我国经发展的基础? 我国C会M初期特别是大跃进时代高速度? 指标发展出现的错误再也不可能发生了? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? Q二Q我国的岩土工程是保持我国经稳步高 速发展的火R? 1.交通(公\、铁路、隧道)工程Q资源、能 源开发工E,水利Q水资源开发)工程Q城市徏? 工程和其它基设施工程的岩土工Eؓ基础? 工程是国民经发展的基础? 2.岩土工程的现代化发展带动钢铁、徏 材、信息业和高端刉业的发展,是我国工业化 和农业现代化的火车头Q也是国民经高速发展的 火R头? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? 二、岩土工E徏讄代化发展的道? ——? ? 走工E决{、实施操作、监控管理智能化的发展道? 实现化的发展道\包括Q? 1.工程安全高效q作环境灑֮控制决策和实? 监控的信息化Q即在可靠的地理地质信息和不同采 动条件下岩层q动和应力分布动态结构模型的敌情 基础上决{;化,卛_正确的理论和相关事故 控制决策模型的指g计算动决{;可视化, 即用三维图象表示QŞ象化的输出决{的l果? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? 为此Q必d展以不同采动条g下可能L及的围岩 范围和相应的应力场分布特征ؓ核心“实用岩层运 动控制”的理论及相兛_{模型的Q以此ؓ? Q成功地完成计算机决{Y件与相应信息采集p? l的开发Q务; 2.采用遥控集生产操作、工늛控于一体的? 能化装备完成工程推进的全q程。ؓ此,必须在发 展工E理论的基础上实现现代化装备的新H破Q? 3.灑֮发生时抢险救灑ַ作的化? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? 三.关于岩土工程学科体系发展问题 工程学科的科学体pd括工E理论、工E装备? 工程材料和工E管理四个部分? Q一Q工E理论(包括四个部分Q? I、工E物理(工程存在和发展的道理Q及其科学体 p? 1.工程Q徏讄Q目标思想和理念(最单的的文? 表白Q? 2.工程l构l成及特征(最形象的图形描qͼ 3.工程l构在灾宛_力作用下的存在和发展的道? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? ①工E(l构Q存在和发展变化Q包括在工程? 宛_力作用下破坏和新生)道理的“定性”表?Q? 最z的文字表述、最形象的图形描qͼ ②工E(l构Q存在和发展变化道理的“定量? 描述包括Q? a.(l构)力学模型 Q结构体pȝ定破坏的力学模型 、结构组成部分的E_破坏力学模型Q? b.Q结构)数学模型——结构力学参数相互关pd 其变化规律的数学表达方程? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? II、工E力学模型的 III、工E数学模型的 IV、工E物理相x型的囑փ转化——定量模型的 数字化和计算Y件开发研I? Q二Q工E装? 1 2 3 、煤Q岩Q采集装? 、煤Q岩Q运输装? 、工作空_包括采场及通道Q支护装? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? Q三Q工E材? 1 2 3 、工E装备材? 、采动空间围岩支护材? 、采动空间充填材? Q? 四)工程理 、工E管理体制和q行机制Q以人才培养和充? 发挥作用为核心) 、工E决{和实施监控C化管理手D(包括? 1 2 {信息采集和决策软g开发) 工程理论的发展是工程学科发展的核心, 必需首先取得H破性发展。现以岩爆ؓ例加以说明? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? 四.关于岩爆Q冲d压)预测? 控制理论的探? 巷道初始形成 巷道围岩E_状? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? 1 .岩爆的原因及实现的条Ӟ机理Q的研究 原因Q工E裸露易脆性破坏的岩体承受的压 ~应力(压羃Ҏ能Q超q其强度极限? 实现的条Ӟ包括压羃应力Q压~弹性能Q? ? ? 限Q采动促发围岩失d始^衡状态;围岩处于 无支护的裔R状态或采用支护不以抵抗达到围? 破坏极限的压~弹性能释放所产生的冲d力? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? 2.岩爆Q冲d压)预测和预? ①预预报的内容 a发生可能性的预测 脆性破坏特征的围岩承受的压~弹性能辑ֈ? 生冲ȝ坏的极限? b发生时可能L及的范围Q包括横向破坏深度和 U向破坏长度Q? c发生旉和地炚w? ②预预报的Ҏ a理论推断? 通过冲击地压发生条g的研I和相应采动条g 下的围岩q动破坏和应力场应力分布l构模型的徏 讑֮现? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? 例如在原始单一重力场的条g下,我们可以肯定? 于压~弹性能限或超q冲ȝ坏界深度的脆? 岩层中开掘和l护的؜道(或硐室)都有发生冲击 地压的可能。L及的长度Q可能涉及无支护裔R? 岩的全部? b实测推断? 通过采动促发的围岩破坏深度和波及长度动? 观测推断Q包括声、L、微震监方法和通过围岩 破坏和压力显现推断压力分布预报围岩运动的“井 下岩层动态观研I方法”? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? 3 .关于岩爆Q冲d压)灑֮的控? ①在对冲d压发生可能高速破坏的围岩深度 作出正确预测的基上,在采动(掘进Q前Q采? 能承受动压冲dӞ~解Q岩体释攄压羃Ҏ? 能量的“恒d变Ş锚烦锚网支护技术”控制裸? 岩体。该技术采用的锚烦长度由压~应力拱位置? 定,数量应能承担能量释放由锚|掩护的破坏岩体 重量? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? 04W届q第 五届 ??技技U?技?? ②必d现采动(爆破Q和支护操作的自动化 和遥控,防止伤亡事故的发生? 04W届q第 五届 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